He was named Thayendanegea, which in the Mohawk language can mean "two wagers sticks bound together for strength", or possibly "he who places two bets". As the Mohawk were a matrilineal culture, he was born into his mother's Wolf Clan.
He was known as Young Joseph during his youth because his father, Tuekakas was baptized with the same Christian name and later become known as "Old Joseph" or "Joseph the Elder". Tensions grew as the settlers appropriated traditional Indian lands for farming and grazing livestock.
Isaac Stevensgovernor of the Washington Territoryorganized a council to designate separate areas for natives and settlers in Chief Lawyer and one of his allied chiefs signed the treaty on behalf of the Nez Perce Nation, but Joseph the Elder and several other chiefs were opposed to selling their lands and did not sign.
Joseph the Elder demarcated Wallowa land with a series of poles, proclaiming, "Inside this boundary all our people were born. It circles the graves of our fathers, and we will never give up these graves to any man. Before his death, the latter counseled his son: My son, my body is returning to my mother earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief.
When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home.
A few years more and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother. A handwritten document mentioned in the Oral History of the Grande Ronde recounts an experience by Oregon pioneer Henry Young and two friends in search of acreage at Prairie Creek, east of Wallowa Lake.
But inthe government reversed its policy, and Army General Oliver O.
Howard threatened to attack if the Wallowa band did not relocate to the Idaho reservation with the other Nez Perce.
Before the outbreak of hostilities, General Howard held a council at Fort Lapwai to try to convince Joseph and his people to relocate. Joseph finished his address to the general, which focused on human equality, by expressing his "[disbelief that] the Great Spirit Chief gave one kind of men the right to tell another kind of men what they must do.
When Toohoolhoolzote protested, he was jailed for five days. The day following the council, Joseph, White Birdand Looking Glass all accompanied Howard to examine different areas within the reservation.Chief Joseph & the Nez perCe (Grade 11/United States History) Written by Kris McIntosh What can students learn about the Nez Perce and Chief Joseph by reading the data?
Ask stating that "the Indians throughout displayed a courage and skill that elicited universal praise [they] fought with almost scientific skill, using advance and.
Chapter STUDY. PLAY. How did Chief Joseph, Geronimo, and Sarah Winnemucca respond to white treatment of the American Indian? Joseph responded to the white treatment of american indians by surrendering. Geronimo responded by fleeing with ~75 people, surrendered, escaped, and gave up.
What can students learn about the Nez Perce and Chief Joseph by reading the data? Ask students to draw conclusions by answering these questions, “Why are there so few Nez of the tribe's longstanding peace with whites.
In he even helped Washington's territorial stating that "the Indians throughout displayed a courage and skill.
On October 5, Chief Joseph and his tribe the Nez Perce surrendered to the U.S. Army. Learn about the tribe’s way of life and their final act of defiance.