Excerpt 1 Introduction Within the course International Marketing, the third project deals with academic research in international marketing and internationalisation. We have chosen to focus on the international dimension of standardisation versus adaptation in service marketing. However, we will first give an overview about earlier research done within this field.
Shipping was an essential ingredient in opening up early trade routes, with banking and insurance following and then facilitating them. In time, large companies emerged to operate international marine freight and passenger services, developing a network of agents in different ports to represent them.
As more and more organisations offer services in foreign markets - often around the world - and as international trade in services increases, important questions are being raised concerning the design and implementation of international service marketing strategies.
But there are other issues, as well; international strategies, scale and diversity, etc.
|Standardisation and Adaptation||The advantages of standardization is the consistency of the product throughout the world and the cost savings from having identical the product.|
|Get Full Essay||Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Success in reducing barriers has increased the relative importance of non-tariff barrier, including those related to standards and technical regulations.|
|International Marketing: Adaptation vs. Standardisation Essay||Sponsorships Pride All of these elements will be affected in some degree when a company enters foreign markets due to the cultural, legal and languages differences. The overseas market is similar to the home market with limited cultural differences.|
|Adaptation vs. Standardization | Branded Translations||Sponsorships Pride All of these elements will be affected in some degree when a company enters foreign markets due to the cultural, legal and languages differences. The overseas market is similar to the home market with limited cultural differences.|
Not all services are the same. Globalisation has different implications for different types of services and is affected by the nature of the process involved in creating and delivering a given service.
However, it is a fact that international marketing of services is becoming a considerable part of total service marketing.
Hence, it is not only of interest for service companies, but also for manufacturing companies. But curiously, most of these studies have looked only at a single element in the marketing mix 14 of the studies focused on advertising. Services have the following characteristics: Products, on the other hand, have the following characteristics: Front Room The literature of operations management has paid relatively little attention to the globalisation of services while emphasising the international nature of manufacturing.
The fact that so much recent reporting focuses on the export of back room operations indicates that one factor in globalisation is the degree of customer contact.
By definition, customer contact is not a factor where routine back room operations are involved, however, local workers will need to be trained in their native language. The globalisation of front room operations with its verbal customer contact still depends heavily on cultural adaptation of the service.
One reason for communicating with the customer is to learn what the customer needs and to customise the service accordingly. When taking a high customer contact service overseas, language and culture can create barriers to effective communication. In contract services such as computer software development, the ability to customise the work to meet customer needs is important.
There is little doubt that new telecommunications modes have helped the globalisation of services. Labour intensity is currently a factor in the globalisation of services. Many of the back room operations moving offshore are doing so to acquire less expensive, but well-educated labour.
Labour intensity and capital intensity are not offsetting entities in services. Labour intensive activities can be supported by major investments in communications and computer systems that facilitate the transfer of information into and out of the process.
However, the customer contact or front room operations require sensitivity to the local culture. The best approach would appear to be to hire and train locals to handle that part of the process in consultation with those who know successful approaches, which have worked in other countries.
Multi-service development represents an alternative growth vector for a successful service firm. For the multi-service single-site strategy to be successful internationally, customers must be willing to travel a long distance and stay for an extended time or telecommunications must be substituted for physical travel.
Many services such as prestigious colleges, universities, medical centres, and tourist attractions meet these stipulations. A service that decides to retain its location and attract customers from around the world will be faced with developing the foreign language skill and cultural sensitivity of its customer contact employees.
It may have to pay more to get those skills. The unique features of the location for example tourist attraction or reputation of service personnel will dictate the selection of this strategy.
Differentiation will occur through customisation and complexity of the service. Transportation infrastructure and logistics management will be required to accommodate the visiting customers.Cultural Adaptation ESSAY To what extent are you convinced by Tange’s () position regarding cultural adaptation?
In the new global economy, the model of cultural acculturation proposed by Hanne Tange has become a central issue that concerns international business about sojourner adaptation into foreign society.
Adaptation occurs when any element of the marketing strategy is modified to achieve a competitive advantage when entering a foreign market.
The advantages of standardization is the consistency of the product throughout the world and the cost savings from having identical the product. - STANDARDISATION VS ADAPTATION The standardisation versus adaptation debate is an old one in international marketing, as the discussion timidly started more than eight decades ago, in the 's, was generalized in the 's and continues until today (Vrontis, Thrassou & Lamprianou, ).
In the International Marketing field, the debate of standardisation as against adaptation has been significantly researched in the past and is still a highly debatable issue.
Standardisation VS Mass Customisation Introduction Hospitality and tourism industry represent 5% of global Gross Domestic Product, it is also responsible for over million jobs globally or one in every 12 jobs worldwide (UNWTO, ).
Furthermore, it is the fourth largest export sector in the world (UNWTO, ). INTRODUCTION The debate of standardization versus adaptation has lasted for the last 52 years.(The McGraw-Hill Companies, ).
To standardize or adapt when going or planning to go international is the most difficult and delicate decision to .