You see what a tiny place you occupy in the world. More specifically, the dissertation had the following objectives:
Overview[ edit ] Part of the effectiveness of the cognitive apprenticeship model comes from learning in context and is based on theories of situated cognition. Cognitive scientists maintain that the context in which learning takes place is critical e.
Based on findings such as these, Collins, Duguid, and Brown argue that cognitive apprenticeships are less effective when skills and concepts are taught independently of their real-world context and situation. As they state, "Situations might be said to co-produce knowledge through activity.
Learning and cognition, it is now possible to argue, are fundamentally situated". By modelling and coaching, masters in cognitive apprenticeships also support the three stages of skill acquisition described in the expertise literature: In the associative stage, mistakes and misinterpretations learned in the cognitive stage are detected and eliminated, while associations between the critical elements involved in the skill are strengthened.
Finally, in the autonomous stage, the learner's skill becomes honed and perfected until it is executed at an expert level. The apprentice then attempts to imitate those behaviors as the master observes and coaches.
Vygotsky referred to this as the Zone of Proximal Development and believed that fostering development within this zone would lead to the most rapid development.
The coaching process includes providing additional modeling as necessary, giving corrective feedback, and giving reminders, which all intend to bring the apprentice's performance closer to that of the master's.
As the apprentice becomes more skilled through the repetition of this process, the feedback and instruction provided by the master "fades" until the apprentice is, ideally, performing the skill at a close approximation of the master level. The next two, articulation and reflection, are designed to help novices with awareness of problem-solving strategies and execution similar to that of an expert.
The final step, exploration, intends to guide the novice towards independence and the ability to solve and identify problems within the domain on their own. The authors note, however, that this is not an exhaustive list of methods and that the successful execution of these methods is highly dependent on the domain.
For example, a math teacher might write out explicit steps and work through a problem aloud, demonstrating their heuristics and procedural knowledge.
Modeling includes demonstrating expert performances or processes in the world. Coaching[ edit ] Coaching involves observing a novice's task performance and offering feedback and hints to sculpt the novice's performance to that of an expert's.
The expert oversees the novice's tasks and may structure the task accordingly to assist the novice's development. Scaffolding[ edit ] Instructional scaffolding is the act of applying strategies and methods to support the student's learning.
These supports could be teaching manipulatives, activities, or group work. The teacher may have to execute parts of the task that the student is not yet able to do.
This requires the teacher to have the skill to analyze and assess students' abilities in the moment.
Articulation[ edit ] Articulation includes "any method of getting students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving process in a domain" p. Thinking aloud requires students to articulate their thoughts while solving problems. Students assuming a critical role monitor others in cooperative activities and draw conclusions based on the problem-solving activities.
Articulation is described by McLellan  as consisting of two aspects:Abstract An account of the author’s experiences of a ‘personal and professional development’ module.
The two main sections analyse the learning experience, and focus upon a . Behaviourist Approach to Learning. This approach to learning is based on the idea that learners respond to stimuli in their environment.
The role of the learning facilitator, therefore, is to provide relevant and useful stimuli so that the learner responds to and gains the required knowledge or experience.
The Qualitative Dissertation: A Guide for Students and Faculty [Maria Piantanida, Noreen B. Garman] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Focused on making reflection an integral part of the journey, this updated resource guides readers through the process of researching. Personal Reflection Sample on Completing a Dissertation on CSR Posted on August 29, by John Dudovskiy This article illustrates a sample personal reflection of the author upon the learning experience and presents critical analysis of the development of the author as a researcher and scholar as a result of conducting this study.
Final Abstract While reflecting on the experience of writing a thesis, I came to the realization that I truly enjoyed this process, at least most of it. I am the type of person who loves to learn and always seeks to obtain more knowledge in and out of the classroom.
I am especially passionate about learning things. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate conditions that may affect students’ reflective learning specifically in small groups and professional practice.
In medical and other health-science curricula professionalism is an important subject based on accountability for which reflective.