Nok sculpture, terracotta The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and ADproducing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa.
It gives me great pleasure to have this opportunity to address this distinguished audience and I thank Justice Akanbi and the Mustapha Akanbi Foundation for giving me this opportunity to share my thoughts with you on this important topic 1. When I was approached to deliver this talk, I readily agreed for three important reasons.
Firstly, to honour Honourable Justice Mustapha Akanbi, a distinguished jurist, and an outstanding public servant who has served this country well as a classroom teacher, judge and the Chair of ICPC. As I intend to argue in my presentation, nations are built by exemplary men and women and sustained by institutions that promote good governance and thus socio-economic development.
Justice Akanbi is a shining example of one such a person and he was a pioneer head of a sensitive public institution. My most important reason, however, for accepting this invitation has to do with the subject matter for discussion.
We need to reflect on our journey so far, so we can do better in the future and leave a better legacy for posterity II. Nations are an important part of modern society.
If we go back into history, we see that the world used to be divided into empires and kingdoms. In the modern period, however, nations or nation states have replaced empires as the basic unit of human political organization.
I myself have had the privilege of close association with the United Nations, an organization set up to ensure the peaceful coexistence and the social economic development of the worlds numerous nations.
As an integral part of the modern world, therefore, Nigerians are rightly concerned about nation-building. Nation-building is therefore the product of conscious statecraft, not happenstance. Nation-building is always a work-in-progress; a dynamic process in constant need of nurturing and re-invention.
Nation-building never stops and true nation-builder never rest because all nations are constantly facing up to new challenges. Nation-building has many important aspects.
Firstly, it is about building a political entity which corresponds to a given territory, based on some generally accepted rules, norms, and principles, and a common citizenship.
Secondly, it is also about building institutions which symbolize the political entity — institutions such as a bureaucracy, an economy, the judiciary, universities, a civil service, and civil society organizations.
Above all else, however, nation-building is about building a common sense of purpose, a sense of shared destiny, a collective imagination of belonging.
Nation-building is therefore about building the tangible and intangible threads that hold a political entity together and gives it a sense of purpose.
Even in these days of globalization and rapid international flows of people and ideas, having a viable nation remains synonymous with achieving modernity.
It is about building the institutions and values which sustain the collective community in these modern times. I shall return to the imperatives of institution-building later in this presentation. This is an ascriptive perspective. We are seen as giants not necessarily because of the quality of our national institutions and values, but simply by virtue of our large population and oil wealth.
But in reality, the greatness of a nation has to be earned and is not determined just by the size of its population or the abundance of its natural resources. China and India have the largest populations in the world, but they are only now rising as important global players.
On the other hand, Japan has few natural resources, but has long managed to turn itself into a global economic powerhouse.
Not even the possession of the nuclear bomb is enough to make a nation great without reference to the industriousness and creativity of its citizens. Since the time of Adam Smith, every serious nationalist and politician has come to know that the wealth of a nation is not based on the wealth and opulence of its rulers, but on the productivity and industriousness of its citizenry.
The real question is why has the task of nation-building been so difficult in Nigeria, and the fruits so patchy, despite our enormous human and natural resources? I suggest that we should look for the answer in three critical areas: We need to understand the environment for nation-building in Nigeria, so we can clearly identify our strengths, weaknesses, and core challenges.
We also need to evolve a system of leadership selection and accountability which produces the sort of leaders that will confront the challenges of the environment in a way that is beneficial for nation-building.
As I have argued at the beginning, nations are a product of the human will and imagination and the institutions that sustain their collective efforts. Challenges before Nigerian Nation-building: Nigeria faces five main nation-building challenges: In our quest for nation-building, we have recorded some successes, such as keeping the country together in the face of many challenges.
But these challenges continue to keep us from achieving our full potential.The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and AD , producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered . Culture of Nigeria - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family Ma-Ni.
Nigeria: Geographical and historical treatment of Nigeria, including maps and statistics as well as a survey of its people, economy, and government. Every year Mercer releases a ranking of which cities have the best quality of life. But it also ranks the major cities at the other end of the scale.
Sep 10, Nestlé R&D Abidjan and Regulatory and Scientific Affairs (RSA) Sub Saharan Africa represented at Africa Green Revolution Forum Informal modes of education have formed a foundation for tertiary education in Nigeria for many years and are still at play today.
These programs and structures are difficult to study and assess unanimously as they are decentralized and unique in their missions and practices. Many academics have concluded that an overall lack of funding and centralization has significantly hindered the quality.