Cis 499 week 4 assignment 2

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Cis 499 week 4 assignment 2

Phantom pain associated with spinal cord injury Restless legs syndrome Stroke treatment e. Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS is a non-invasive method of induction of a focal current in the brain and transient modulation of the function of the targeted cerebral cortex.

This procedure entails placement of an electromagnetic coil on the scalp; high-intensity electrical current is rapidly turned on and off in the coil through the discharge of capacitors. Depending on stimulation parameters frequency, intensity, pulse duration, stimulation siterepetitive TMS rTMS to specific cortical regions can either increase or decrease the excitability of the affected brain structures.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been investigated in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, especially depression. This procedure is usually carried out in an outpatient setting. In contrast to electroconvulsive therapy, TMS does not require anesthesia or analgesia. Furthermore, it does not affect memory and usually does not cause seizures.

However, the available peer-reviewed medical literature has not established the effectiveness Cis 499 week 4 assignment 2 rTMS in the treatment of psychiatric disorders other than major depression.

In addition, more research is needed to ascertain the roles of various stimulation parameters of rTMS for its optimal outcome as well as its long-term effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Cis 499 week 4 assignment 2

Depression Martin et al conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that compared rTMS with sham in patients with depression. The authors concluded that current trials are of low quality and provide insufficient evidence to support the use of rTMS in the treatment of depression.

This is in accordance with the observations of Fitzgerald and colleagues who noted that TMS has a considerable role in neuropsychiatric research. It appears to have considerable potential as a therapeutic tool in depression, and perhaps a role in several other disorders, although widespread application requires larger trials and establishment of sustained response, as well as Gershon et al who stated that TMS shows promise as a novel anti-depressant treatment.

Systematic and large-scale studies are needed to identify patient populations most likely to benefit and treatment parameters most likely to produce success. One patient was lost to follow-up at end of treatment and another 8 at 6 months. However, HRSD scores did not differ between groups at 6 months.

Improvement in subjective reports of side-effects following ECT correlated with anti-depressant response. The report noted that analysis of cost-effectiveness acceptability curves demonstrated that rTMS has very low probability of being more cost-effective than ECT.

A treatment course usually consists of 6 weeks of min sessions 5 days a week. For a more clear answer, the National Institutes of Health has an independent study under way that tracks patients Associated Press, Active TMS was well-tolerated with a low drop-out rate for adverse events 4.

The authors concluded that TMS was effective in treating major depression with minimal side effects reported. Further, at 6 weeks, 36 Furthermore, continued active TMS provided additional benefit to some patients who failed to respond to 4 weeks of treatment, suggesting that longer courses of treatment may confer additional therapeutic benefit.

On the other hand, Mogg and co-workers noted that the effectiveness of rTMS for major depression is unclear. Secondary outcomes included mood self-ratings on Beck Depression Inventory-II and visual analog mood scales, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score, and both self-reported and observer-rated cognitive changes.

Patients had 6-week and 4-month follow-ups. Blinding was difficult to maintain for both patients and raters. A total of 16 medication-free patients with refractory MDD diagnosed according to DSM-IV who initially had clinically significant anti-depressant responses to a day course of Hz rTMS were consecutively admitted to the protocol from to and were followed for 4 years.

The cohort was studied during a total of 64 episodes of depressive relapse. Safety was assessed by serial neurological examinations and neuropsychological evaluations.+ I will only accept facebook friend requests from people I know in person. + I will only accept linkedin requests from people I have worked with or had at least a few email exchanges with (remind me on the request if this is the case).

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Cis 499 week 4 assignment 2

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