Dr Amy Calvert Egypt's impact on later cultures was immense. You could say that Egypt provided the building blocks for Greek and Roman culture, and, through them, influenced all of the Western tradition.
Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population.
Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game.
To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubiain which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land.
West of the Nile was the arid Saharabroken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals. The eastern desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, was more important, for it supported a small nomadic population and desert game, contained numerous mineral deposits, including gold, and was the route to the Red Sea.
To the northeast was the Isthmus of Suez. From the late 2nd millennium bce onward, numerous attacks were made by land and sea along the eastern Mediterranean coast.
At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Seabut from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos present-day Jbail. Egypt needed few imports to maintain basic standards of living, but good timber was essential and not available within the country, so it usually was obtained from Lebanon.
Minerals such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Agriculture centred on the cultivation of cereal crops, chiefly emmer wheat Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare. The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop.
This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bce, the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East.
As the river deposited alluvial silt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly. In addition to grain crops, fruit and vegetables were important, the latter being irrigated year-round in small plots.
Fish was also vital to the diet. Papyruswhich grew abundantly in marshes, was gathered wild and in later times was cultivated.
It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals. Cattle may have been domesticated in northeastern Africa. The Egyptians kept many as draft animals and for their various products, showing some of the interest in breeds and individuals that is found to this day in the Sudan and eastern Africa.
The donkey, which was the principal transport animal the camel did not become common until Roman timeswas probably domesticated in the region. The native Egyptian breed of sheep became extinct in the 2nd millennium bce and was replaced by an Asiatic breed.
Sheep were primarily a source of meat; their wool was rarely used. Goats were more numerous than sheep. Pigs were also raised and eaten. Ducks and geese were kept for food, and many of the vast numbers of wild and migratory birds found in Egypt were hunted and trapped.
Desert game, principally various species of antelope and ibex, were hunted by the elite; it was a royal privilege to hunt lions and wild cattle. Pets included dogs, which were also used for hunting, cats, and monkeys.
In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment.
Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.
In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libyaand especially the Middle East.Colossal pyramids, imposing temples, golden treasures, enigmatic hieroglyphs, powerful pharaohs, strange gods, and mysterious mummies are features of Ancient Egyptian culture that have fascinated people over the millennia.
The Bible refers to its gods, rulers, and pyramids. Neighboring cultures in the ancient Near East and Mediterranean wrote /5(3). Ancient Egyptian history is a long and complex one with more than 3, years of details The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC · Introduction to Ancient Egypt .
Ancient Egypt holds a special place in the annals of world history.
The grand architecture, sophisticated religion, and, of course, mummified pharaohs create an aura of intrigue and mystery. Perhaps most impressive is Ancient Egypt’s longevity.
The history, culture, people and land of Egypt Ancient Egypt: Main Index and Search Page - History, Dynasties, Cultural Chronology, Mythology, Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt, Glossary, Herodotus on the Pharaohs, Reader, Bibliography.
Colossal pyramids, imposing temples, golden treasures, enigmatic hieroglyphs, powerful pharaohs, strange gods, and mysterious mummies are features of Ancient Egyptian culture that have fascinated people over the millennia.
The Bible refers to its gods, rulers, and pyramids. Neighboring cultures in. Ancient Egypt: Main Index and Search Page - History, Dynasties, Cultural Chronology, Mythology, Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt, Glossary, Herodotus on the Pharaohs, Reader, Bibliography An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt Table of contents.
of when, how, why and by whom the Great Pyramids, for instance, have.