EMG A series of diagnostic procedures in which electrical activity in muscles is measured to determine whether the nerve pathway from the spine is intact. How is it performed? For an EMG, a needle electrode is inserted through the skin into the muscle.
Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called " trivial names " e. Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate.
For example, butyl acetate systematically butyl ethanoatederived from butanol and acetic acid systematically ethanoic acid would be written CH3CO2C4H9. Cyclic esters are called lactonesregardless of whether they are derived from an organic or an inorganic acid.
Inorganic esters[ edit ] A phosphoric acid ester Esters can also be derived from an inorganic acid and an alcohol. Thus, the nomenclature extends to inorganic oxo acids and their corresponding esters: For example, triphenyl phosphate is the ester derived from phosphoric acid and phenol.
Organic carbonates are derived from carbonic acid ; for example, ethylene carbonate is derived from carbonic acid and ethylene glycol. So far an alcohol and inorganic acid are linked via oxygen atoms.
The definition of inorganic acid ester that feature inorganic chemical elements links between alcohols and the inorganic acid — the phosphorus atom linking to three alkoxy functional groups in organophosphate — can be extended to the same elements in various combinations of covalent bonds between carbons and the central inorganic atom and carbon—oxygen bonds to central inorganic atoms.
For example, phosphorus features three carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bondings and one phosphorus—oxygen double bond in organophosphates, structure of a generic organophosphate three carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bondings and no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds in phosphite esters or organophosphites, structure of a generic phosphite ester showing the lone pairs on the P two carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bondings, no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds but one phosphorus—carbon bond in phosphonites, structure of a generic phosphonite — ester of phosphonous acid one carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bondings, no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds but two phosphorus—carbon bonds in phosphinites.
As oxygen is a group 16 chemical element, sulfur atoms can replace some oxygen atoms in carbon—oxygen—central inorganic atom covalent bonds of an ester. As a result, thiosulfinates ' and thiosulfonateswith a central inorganic sulfur atom, demonstrate clearly the assortment of sulfur esters, that also includes sulfatessulfitessulfonatessulfinatessulfenates esters.
Unlike amidesesters are structurally flexible functional groups because rotation about the C—O—C bonds has a low barrier. Their flexibility and low polarity is manifested in their physical properties; they tend to be less rigid lower melting point and more volatile lower boiling point than the corresponding amides.
The preference for the Z conformation is influenced by the nature of the substituents and solvent, if present. E conformation due to their cyclic structure.
Physical properties and characterization[ edit ] Esters are more polar than ethers but less polar than alcohols.
They participate in hydrogen bonds as hydrogen-bond acceptors, but cannot act as hydrogen-bond donors, unlike their parent alcohols. This ability to participate in hydrogen bonding confers some water-solubility. Because of their lack of hydrogen-bond-donating ability, esters do not self-associate.
Consequently, esters are more volatile than carboxylic acids of similar molecular weight. This peak changes depending on the functional groups attached to the carbonyl. Applications and occurrence[ edit ] Esters are widespread in nature and are widely used in industry.
In nature, fats are in general triesters derived from glycerol and fatty acids. Esters are common in organic chemistry and biological materials, and often have a characteristic pleasant, fruity odor. This leads to their extensive use in the fragrance and flavor industry.
Ester bonds are also found in many polymers. Esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols[ edit ] The classic synthesis is the Fischer esterificationwhich involves treating a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a dehydrating agent: Sulfuric acid is a typical catalyst for this reaction.
Many other acids are also used such as polymeric sulfonic acids. Since esterification is highly reversible, the yield of the ester can be improved using Le Chatelier's principle: Using the alcohol in large excess i.
Using a dehydrating agent: Other drying agents such as molecular sieves are also effective. Removal of water by physical means such as distillation as a low-boiling azeotropes with toluenein conjunction with a Dean-Stark apparatus. Reagents are known that drive the dehydration of mixtures of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
One example is the Steglich esterificationwhich is a method of forming esters under mild conditions. The method is popular in peptide synthesiswhere the substrates are sensitive to harsh conditions like high heat.
This equation can be rearranged to find the amount of heat energy (q) gained or lost by a substance given its specific heat capacity (C g), mass in grams (g) and the change in temperature (ΔT). q = m × C g × ΔT. Molar Heat Capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the substance by 1°C (or by 1 K). The Flight(s) of Amelia Ea rhart(s) Amelia Mary Earhart was a famous female aviator. She was the first lady to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. As part of an experiment to determine the density of a new plastic developed in her laboratory, Sara Ann Dippity measures the volume of a solid sample. Her four trials yield volumes of cm3, cm3, cm3, and cm3.
DCC dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is used to activate the carboxylic acid to further reaction. The method is useful in specialized organic synthetic operations but is considered too hazardous and expensive for large-scale applications.
Alcoholysis of acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides[ edit ] Alcohols react with acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides to give esters: Since acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides also react with water, anhydrous conditions are preferred.
The analogous acylations of amines to give amides are less sensitive because amines are stronger nucleophiles and react more rapidly than does water.Tert-butyl alcohol is an isomer of butanol that contains a tertiary butyl group that consists of three methyl groups, each separately attached to a central (tertiary) carbon.
What is Gas? Gas is a substance, where the particles (molecules and atoms) can freely move. In thermodynamic equilibrium these particles are uniformly distributed in space, so that the pressure, partial pressures and gas composition are the same at all points of the container.
Dr. Kazuhiko Asai published this famous book on Germanium in , it was published by Japan Publications and was out of print by This page is the equivalent of 47 pages in a word document, you can print by clicking "Print this page”, or copy and paste the text yourself and save to your computer.
(Click Here for Director's Choice Ideas) Here are just a few ideas that I have collected over time and from the Internet. Possibly some of these will get you going in the right direction on your project. - Investigating Whether There is a Link Between The Number of Carbon Atoms in a Fuel and the Amount of Heat Produced Aim The aim is to investigate if there is a link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel and the amount of heat produced by that fuel.
has to be weighed accurately before and after the experiment. The alcohol has to be. Measuring the Enthalpy change of combustion Abstract This simple experiment is carried out to show the difference in the enthalpy change of combustion between two fuels, hexane and methanol.
These fuels are individually weighed before and after used as heat source to heat water in a calorimeter.