Available as a Google eBook for other eReaders and tablet devices. In this seminal study, Bonny Ibhawoh investigates the links between European imperialism and human rights discourses in African history. Using British-colonized Nigeria as a case study, he examines how diverse interest groups within colonial society deployed the language of rights and liberties to serve varied socioeconomic and political ends. Ibhawoh challenges the linear progressivism that dominates human rights scholarship by arguing that, in the colonial African context, rights discourses were not simple monolithic or progressive narratives.
One of the most serious errors, if not the most serious error, committed by colonial powers in Africa, may have been to ignore or underestimate the cultural strength of the African peoples.
Fearmongering, police violence, exploitation, and rigged electoral systems could not stop the wave of protests. The neoliberal forms of imperial rule that had destroyed the A study of the impact of imperialism in africa of the liberation movements were under attack. In order to counter the possibilities for a massive breakthrough at the popular level, the Western forces mounted an invasion of Libya using the mantra of humanitarianism to disrupt, militarily, political and economic life in Africa.
Later in collusion with the counter-revolutionary forces in the Egyptian military, Western imperialism sought to roll back the gains of people in the streets of Tunis and Cairo.
NATO, as the force for the defense of the financial oligarchs, sought to squash all forms of anti-imperialism in Africa, but the NATO intervention and its catastrophic aftermath only strengthened the resurgence of anti-imperialist ideas among the peoples of Africa.
Imperialism in Africa had matured from the cruder colonial forms and worked through the Bretton Woods institutions while unleashing divisive ideas on cultural and religious levels.
At the base, fundamentalist religious formations were the vanguard of penetration—spewing ideas about the subordination of women and disrespect for peoples of different faiths.
Figures like Kay and Phillips joined with colonial apologists such as Lewis Gann and Peter Duignan, who claimed that colonialism was beneficial for Africans, and that capitalism created underdevelopment in Africa because it was not exploitative enough.
They argued that while there may have been excesses and unfortunate incidents, on balance, colonialism brought education, health, and sanitation to Africa.
Today, in the twenty-first century, the older forms of class mobilization of the national liberation era have exhausted their potential and there are new social forces that have arisen that are fighting for reparative justice, peace, life, health, and the repair of the natural environment.
These movements, and their anti-imperialist ideas, had kept the flames of African freedom burning. The application of Marxist anti-imperialist thought in the work of Amilcar Cabral and Rodney now re-emerges as guide to a new wave of African anti-imperialism.
Piracy on Dry Land We will simply state that imperialism can be defined as a worldwide expression of the search for profits and the ever-increasing accumulation of surplus value by monopoly-financial capital centered in two parts of the world; first in Europe, and then in North America.
And if we wish to place the fact of imperialism within the general trajectory of the evolution of the transcendental factor, which has changed the face of the world, namely capital and the process of its accumulation, we can say that imperialism is piracy transplanted from the seas to dry land.
It is piracy reorganized, consolidated, and adapted to the aim of exploiting the natural and human resources of our peoples. However, what was disputed in his analysis was the question of whether there had been the export of capital to Africa similar to the massive export of capital to places such as Argentina, Eastern Europe, or the United States.
Robinson and Gallagher were not Marxists, but some Marxists like Bill Warren of the United Kingdom argued, on what were purportedly Leninist grounds, that capitalist imperialism, even in the form of direct colonial rule, performed a historically highly progressive role in non-European societies, economically, culturally, and politically: In his historically based analysis, Rodney did not present imperialism as a uniform process but as a general historical process or tendency that took different forms in distinct regions based on varying circumstances, combining a myriad of economic, political, and cultural factors.
Nonetheless, such questions do serve to highlight that Africa was not historically an object of the export of capital, nor integrated directly into the system even in terms of economic dependency, until well into the twentieth century.
Rather it was relegated to the position of a natural resource and labor reserve, subject from the beginning to a particularly extreme form of extractivism. This was later developed more fully in the late twentieth century in the context of the emergence of independent African states, without, however, altering the essential relation.
Moreover, this was invariably tied to cultural imperialism that was imposed in the form of a hegemonic racism, rooted in the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Political, economic, and cultural forces imposed by the penetration of imperialism into Africa therefore all contributed to the historical process that Rodney described as How Europe Underdeveloped Africa.
The interpretation of capitalist imperialism as a force for cultural and economic progress in Africa is an element in the neoliberal darkness that descended in the last decades, erasing the history of European imperialism in Africa and eluding the reality of imperialism today.
The origins of this system of pillage, and that of industrial capitalism itself, can be found in the European establishment of outposts for the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
The notorious scramble for Africa was formalized in the Berlin Conference of — that divided Africa among the European powers. Rodney pointed out that the imperial partition of Africa was merely the preface to its exploitation, which was soon interrupted by war. Indeed, the increasing tensions between the major powers, often over African territory, eventually led to the world war: In a little known essay, Rodney explained:Special researches were commissioned preparatory to the actual work in Africa, the most important being a study of capitalist investment in Africa, by Professor Frankel of Johannesburg.
But the survey ( pages), and Frankel’s volume ( pages) were published in by the Royal Institute. The biggest long-term impact of imperialism in Africa is that the countries were decided upon by the colonial powers and not by the African people, which led to the situation in which some people who share the same culture and language are split between two or more countries.
Imperialism 2 Case Study: Nigeria European imperialism in Africa, the resistance it met with, and its impact. TAKING NOTES Imperialism in Africa forms and methods resistance impact.
1. Forming and Supporting Opinions Which form of managing imperial interests do you think would be most. Regions such as Africa, the Middle East, India, and Africa were severely impacted positively and negatively by the imperialism of the west.
|C.L.R. James||The New Imperialism c.|
|ALSO OF INTEREST||Imperialism in Africa June Source:|
|Why Study Imperialism?||It first became common with its current sense in Great Britainduring the s and was used with a negative connotation.|
|Sub-section 2||Full Answer European Imperialism Imperialism happens when one country uses its resources to extend political or economic control over another country or region of the world. After decades of trade with many African countries, several European countries adopted imperial policies and began to encroach on the nations through manipulation and military force.|
|Has technology helped or harmed us?||David Livingstone, a Scottish physician, who went to Africa inas a Protestant missionary. Karl Peters, a German student of British colonial activities.|
Two of those cultures that were affected in a very similar way during this time period by the effects of imperialism were Africa and India.4/5(1). Impact of Imperialism on Africa Collapse of European Imperialism - Africa 1. Growing Discontent with Imperialism 2.
Independence Case studies of Ghana and Kenya 3. Problems a. Apartheid in South Africa b. Economic and Health Problems c.
Nigerian Civil War d. Genocide in Rwanda e. Famine and human rights violations in. African Resistance to Colonial Rule Benjamin Talton – Temple University. While African resistance to European colonialism is often thought of in terms of a white and black/European and African power struggle, this presumption underestimates the complex and strategic thinking that Africans commonly employed to address the challenges of European colonial rule.