Chinese top leading group is a black box. Its operation is tightly kept confidential.
A Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.
Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector.
The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest. Agriculture - products This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
Airports This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.
The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.
Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports - with paved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ftand 5 under m under 3, ft.
Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. The type aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.
Airports - with unpaved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.
Appendixes This section includes Factbook-related material by topic. Area This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
Background This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Birth rate This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
Broadcast media This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
Budget This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.
Countries with high budget deficits relative to their GDPs generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits. Capital This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.
Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.
Child labor - children ages This entry gives the percent of children aged or the age range specified engaged in child labor. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children.
Such labor may deprive them of the opportunity to attend school, oblige them to leave school prematurely, or require them to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
Children under the age of 5 years underweight This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.That it sufficed to express the nature of the China–US relationship for some time is apparent in the book on China–US relations from to In responding to the American false-but-nice description of China–US relations, the Chinese government also denied the competitive nature of the China–US relationship.
according to the. Tell us more about what you like to read so we can send you the best offers and opportunities. Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
In China, the terms "Long March," "Little Red Book," and "Great Leap Forward" are most closely associated with the Leadership of Mao Zedong. The Chinese Communists were successful in their revolution during the s and s mainly because the Communists.
Allan, an American citizen, is the vice president of the headquarters of a Fortune company. He has been travelling on business frequently between China and the United States, and sometimes, on.
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